Portable clocks became as can be prove already about 1500 n. Chr. built by Peter Henlein, however in the form of watches. There were however probably already before portable clocks. They became possible by the invention of the tension spring, which permitted the drive and the balance spring (turning pendulum) as replacement for the hanging pendulum as taktgebendes element. By it the clocks could shrink on handy size. Long time prevailed however the watch forwards. A further miniaturization of the clockwork left 20 for the turn. Century the clock on bracelet size shrink. In order this time became it gradually mode, the wrist-watch-large lady watches at the wrist to carry. This fashion applied first to men as “weibisch” - gentlemen used further the watch at the clock chain. This proved for some uses however as unmanageably, for example for pilots, who were meagerly with instruments equipped airplanes dependent on fast and precise time measurement in their at that time. The Brazilian flight pioneer Alberto Santos Dumont read yourself from the friendly Paris Uhrmacher Louis Cartier a clock for flier build, that was carried at the bracelet: The Cartier Santos is considered as the first wrist-watch to men. After also the officers in the First World War stated the fact that their watches generally proved in the winter and on combat conditions as very unpractical became generally accepted the wrist-watch with the military and finally also in the civilian society fast and with end of war the general standard had become. The first mechanism clock (as wrist-watch with pendulum rotor) was built for 1923 by John Harwood. Harwood obviously did not know that Abraham Louis Perrelet had already designed a watch with rotor and change-over switch (thus reciprocal drawing up) around 1770. Later Rolex built a mechanism clock with on one side drawing up rotor and let these patent. An AUTOMATIC refers the energy for stretching the feather/spring from the arm movements of the carrier.
Each mechanical wrist-watch has a balance spring as swinging body. This swings 21,600 (3 cycles per second) or 28,800 (4 cycles per second) half oscillations with by the balance spring spiral given a frequency, with classical clocks 18,000 (corresponds 2.5 cycle per second), with modern clocks usually in the hour. And some high-speed oscillators reach 36,000 half oscillations in the hour (5 cycles per second). The balance spring switches the anchor with each passage. By this change-over it is possible for the Gangrad to run a tooth further. The anchor and the Gangrad prevent the free force delivery of the tension spring over the Räderwerk (see also isochronousism). The Räderwerk (also oscillation speedometer called) is a translation in the fast (seen from the feather/spring). The switching passages of the inhibition therefore down-divided to the minute wheel 1/60 a revolution in the minute makes. The Zeigerwerk decreases Kraft from the minute wheel shaft and divides the revolutions of the Minutenrads, over a change gear with change-rubbed, on the hour pipe, which makes 1/12 revolution by the reduction in the slow in the hour. The pointer of hour becomes on the hour pipe, which Minutenzeiger on the quarterly pipe in such a way specified, which is connected with the minute wheel shaft and/or the Minutenrohr by a slip clutch (those pointer places made possible), fastens.
Clock bracelets can be differentiated in principle on the basis the following characteristics:
- Material: Metal (high-grade steel, titanium, Goldlegierungen), leathers (alligator, crocodile, shark, skate or bunch (bird)), Plastic, india rubber, material, etc.
- Design: Member volume, Web volume or full material
- Latch: Thorn or folding latch (simple or doubles, as handle or pusher)
- Mounting of the bracelet at the clock: Attachment at the volume impacts of the clock case, integration into the clock case or line by bars at the volume impacts (e.g. at NATO Strap volume)
- Bracelet length: normal length for carrying around the naked wrist or long length for carrying over the clothes (e.g. diver suit, flier combination, etc.)
As stop watches (griech. Zeitmesser) may be designated mechanical wrist-watches, which proved a special running accuracy in an exactly defined test. Each clockwork is tested with Swiss inspection station “Contrôle Officiel Suisses of the Chronomètres” (COSC) over 15 days in 5 positions and 3 temperatures. The only manufacturer, that lets all clocks (also quartz clocks) examine, is Breitling.
Employment clocks are particularly for military or other (e.g. police and fire-brigade) task forces conceived wrist-watches. Special characteristics of this kind from watches are, depending upon way of application, robustness in relation to vibrations and ambient temperatures, Wasserdichtigkeit, night readability and announcement of the applied assignment.
Electronic Wirst Watch
Different beginnings were undertaken to build with the help of the electricity more exact clocks so for example the tuning fork clock, with which an electrically propelled tuning fork of given frequency is used as master clock. Became generally accepted on the market however the quartz clock, which constitutes the main part of the world clock market today from the sales figures. With it a quartz crystal, which swings under current flow, for clocking ensures. Quartz clocks can have over a digital announcement at first with LEDs later with more currentsaving liquid crystals or an announcement with pointers (analog clock), whereby also increasingly combinations (hybrid) come on the market. After a boom into the 1980er years the digital display was displaced increasingly again by the analog display. At the beginning 21. Century is to be recognized however rising with the production from digital clocks to, which is due to new fashionable LCD announcements also. 1990 found an end presented by young Hans with the MEGA 1 the first radio-controlled wrist-watch (radio clock), thus the race around the course-most exact clock.
With the triumphant advance of microelectronics it was suddenly possible to manufacture very cheaply comparatively exact clocks with quartz work which changed the traditional watch-and-clock-making industry clearly. It came to a concentration that clockwork (Ebauchon) - manufacturer, that flowed in a monopoly-like position of Swiss ETA SA. This belongs to the all-powerful Swatch Group just like the clockwork manufacturers Frederic Piguet (FP) and Nouvelle Lémania, which work to a large extent both for the extensive luxury clock section of the Swatch Group (glasswork original, union glasswork, Breguet, Blancpain, Rado, Tissot, omega, Longines). End of the 1980er years began a back meditation on mechanical Armbanduren, so that these in the high-quality price segment as luxury article were again very much liked. The microelectronics and the improvements exerted by it of the fine-mechanical manufacturing methods permit even new complications, which were not feasible with traditional methods. The before wide-spread simple mechanical wrist-watch disappeared against it nearly completely and from the very exact and maintenance-poor quartz clock displaced. The large number at today existing marks of mechanical wrist-watches may not deceive about it that into many clocks some few works are built to so-called caliber, those from clockwork manufacturers, as the ETA SA is e.g. manufactured. Only few luxury clock manufacturers, so-called Uhrenmanufakturen, manufacture all substantial parts of their clocks themselves. Swiss luxury clock manufacturers let themselves be essentially divided on three groups of owners: Swatch Group, the French LVMH with the marks DAY this year, Zenith and Dior Watches and the South African Richemont/Vendome Luxury Group. Richemont transferred last in the year 2000 for 3,0 billion Swiss Franconia the LMH getting thing from formerly Vodafone Mannesmann, to which such well-known clock marks belonged such as IWC, A. long ones & sons and hunter LeCoultre. In addition Richemont holds the clock marks Cartier, Piaget, tree & Mercier, Paanerai and Vacheron Constantin. Independent manufacturers are still market leaders Rolex and the high-exclusive Patek Philippe. Beside these large marks in Germany a number of smaller independent clock marks were established, which are to a large extent on the Rohwerken of the ETA SA dependent however and this, with changes, into their housings to partly insert. Some marks under it are Chronoswiss, Aristo, nautical instruments mill glasswork, Rainer fire, sense and Leumas. The division of labor in production of the Rohwerke, that so-called Ebauche and the installation in housings and sales under own label names has however a long tradition.
The simple wrist-watch has two or three pointers, if it possesses seconds display. In addition there are further complications so mentioned, thus technical finesses, how:
A mechanical luxury clock like the Destriero Scafusia of IWC is equipped with 21 functions and cost 220.000 EURO. The Grande Complication (large complication), is considered as the highest Uhrmacherkunst, since she combines the perpetual calendar with Mondphase, minute repetition and Chronographenmechanismus, partly also with Tourbillon in a wrist-watch.
Apart from the technical refinement by numerous auxiliary functions the mechanical rework is a quality criterion of clockworks. Primarily it acts thereby around a Oberflächenvergütung of the components of the work by special cross section techniques like Geneva strip, Perl cross section or sun cross section on wheels. Gold platings are likewise common, as well as polished or blued screws. With the Skelettierung of the work all rigid parts up to the mechanically necessary measure broke through, so that one can look by the work. So complex remuneration are mostly visible by a glass soil and/or a missing dial.
The subsidiary ETA of the Swatchkonzerns possesses 2004 according to data on 19 November of the locked investigation of the Swiss competition commission (Weko) with the mechanical Rohwerken up to a price of 300 Fr. per unit, manufactured in Switzerland, over a dominating the market position. Besides they dominate the time (expenditure 2003/34, page 17) in accordance with the weekly paper the world market with the height-RPR-icy products.
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